Civil War and China
In Hong Kong, the British tried to outmaneuver the Qing dynasty, by legalizing Christianity and also supported the Han Chinese (who was discriminated against by the rulers in China). This led to constant interference by the British into the affairs of China and eventually led to the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911. The collapse was rejoiced by the Chinese people, who now, inspired by nationalistic urges, established a nationalist party called the Kuomintang party (KMT) under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek.
The Russian Revolution of 1917 inspired Dr. Sun Yat-sen, who in 1920 established the Communist Party of China (CPC), under the leadership of Mao Zedong. After the end of the First World War, as noted previously, Japan became aggressive in China and began to occupy areas in China.
The KMT and CPC, despite divergent ideologies, often united together against Japan. However, the KMT and CPC had serious differences regarding China, as CPC wanted to focus on rural areas first and then capture urban areas; while the KMT only focused on urban areas, neglecting the rural areas completely.
Due to these growing differences, in 1927, China descended into a civil war. Japan took the opportunity of the civil war and attacked Manchuria in 1935 and again attacked China in 1937. The CPC and KMT did unite against Japan but both were crushed by Japan. From 1937 onwards, they again began their civil war, which however remained suspended from 1939 to 1945, owing to the Second World War.
Establishment of the Republic of China (ROC)
After the surrender of Japan in 1945, the US tried to negotiate peace between CPC (supported by the USSR by now) and KMT (supported by the US this time but failed. The CPC was able to mobilize Chinese people by branding the KMT as anti-nationalists for they were seeking the support of the US. The public sympathy increased with the CPC and by 1949, the CPC was able to oust KMT and established the People’s Republic of China (PRC), thereby China emerged as a communist state.
The KMT fled away to Taiwan and established the Republic of China (ROC) and remains there until today with ideological differences with PRC. To keep a check upon a communist China, in 1951, the US and Japan entered into an alliance through the Treaty of San Francisco.
Treaty of San Francisco
Que.:When did China become Communist?
Ans.:On October 1, 1949, Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong declared the creation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC).
Que.:What happened in the Chinese civil war?
Ans.:The Chinese Civil War was a civil war fought from 1927 to 1951, because of a difference in thinking between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Nationalist Kuomintang (KMT). The war was a fight for legitimacy as the government of China. … CCP took control of most of China and KMT had only islands.
Que.:Why did the Chinese civil war start?
Ans.:Communist Insurgency (1927–1937) On 1 August 1927, the Communist Party launched an uprising in Nanchang against the Nationalist government in Wuhan. This conflict led to the creation of the Red Army.